Home / Weather Derivatives

Weather Derivatives

Anatomy of a Weather Derivative

In what way is a weather derivative useful?

Cost of a Weather Derivative

Weather agency Skymet plans to launch derivative indices

Delayed Quotes:

US Monthly Weather Cooling Degree Day (CDD) Futures

Weather Derivatives

Weather derivatives are one of the fastest growing segments of the commodities market. These financial instruments are used by companies to hedge against the risk of weather-related losses.

The weather market traces its roots to deregulation of the U.S. energy industry. Variability in weather conditions had always been recognized as one of the most significant factors affecting energy consumption, however the effects of unpredictable seasonal weather patterns had previously been absorbed and managed within a regulated, monopoly environment. With deregulation, the various participants in the process of producing, marketing, and delivering energy to U.S. households and businesses were left to confront weather as a new and significant risk to their bottom line.

Early pioneers in the market – energy traders Aquila, Enron, and Koch Industries – conceived of and executed the first weather derivative transactions in 1997. The first deals were all arranged as privately-negotiated over-the-counter transactions and were structured as protection against warmer or cooler than average weather in specific regions for the winter or summer seasons. The early market participants saw weather derivatives as both a mechanism to hedge inherent weather exposure in their core energy assets and other energy commodity trading operations as well as a new risk management product to offer to regional utilities and other energy concerns alongside the array of structured products they were already providing.

Investors, who sell weather derivatives, agree to take on the risk for a premium. Investors will profit from these transactions if nothing extraordinary weather-wise occurs. If the weather goes bad, the company that bought the derivative collects an agreed-upon amount.

Weather derivatives differ from insurance, which generally provide protection for low-probability, highly catastrophic events like hurricanes and tornadoes. Weather derivatives can cover more mundane weather-events like a heating oil company hedging against having a warmer-than-expected winter.

Worldwide, about 730,000 weather derivative contracts were traded last year, according to the Weather Risk Management Association in Washington, D.C.

The total value of contracts traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange was $19.2 billion last year, down from 2006’s record of $45.2 billion, but significantly higher than the $8.4 billion traded in 2005 and the $4.6 billion traded in 2004, according to the WRMA.

A weather derivative it’s a financial instrument that seems like an insurance policy but is more like an option. Most weather derivatives are based on how much the temperature goes above or below 65 degrees. But weather derivatives can be based on anything measurable.

An example

A ski area could pay a $250,000 premium to collect, say, $100,000 for every inch of snow this winter under the “strike” amount of 100 inches. This is like a “put” option. The ski area is out the premium whether or not snowfall is inadequate. Or, it could enter into a “swap” with another party, paying no premium and getting $100,000 for every inch under 100 and paying $100,000 for every inch over. Increased ticket sales in good winters would cover the cost.

There is also a “call” option where the ski area receives a premium of $250,000 and pays $100,000 for every inch over the strike 100 inches, again assuming higher revenue with heavy snowfall.

Why would anyone assume financial risk by taking the other side?

Some are speculators. It seems that forecasting the weather can be a lot like trying to read an opponents face in a poker game. You may think you’ve got it right but you won’t know either way until that time comes. They believe they understand the probabilities of weather and are willing to wager just as a football fan might bet against a football team because he believes the quarterback is injured. But most parties take the other side of a weather derivative because they also are hedging. Cities, for example, might want to hedge against heavy snowfall because of the cost to clear the streets.

What makes a weather derivative different than other derivatives?

All derivatives are used to hedge against bad news. Airlines use derivatives to protect against soaring jet fuel prices. Derivatives are commonly used to avoid fluctuations in interest rates or foreign currencies. What makes weather derivatives unique: They are not derived from anything with an underlying value.

Anatomy of a Weather Derivative

A weather derivative is defined by several elements, explained below:

Reference Weather Station

All weather contracts are based on the actual observations of weather at one or more specific weather stations. Most transactions are based on a single station, although some contracts are based on a weighted combination of readings from multiple stations and others on the difference in observations at two stations.


The underlying index of a weather derivative defines the measure of weather which governs when and how payouts on the contract will occur. The most common indexes in the market are Heating Degree Days (HDDs) and Cooling Degree Days (CDDs) – these measure the cumulative variation of average daily temperature from 65oF or 18oC over a season and are standard indexes in the energy industry that correlate well with energy consumption. A wide range of other indexes are also used to structure transactions that provide the most appropriate hedging mechanisms for end-users in various industries. Average temperature is another common index for non-energy applications, and some transactions are based on so-called event indexes which count the number of times that temperature exceeds or falls below a defined threshold over the contract period. Similar indexes are also used for other variables; for example cumulative rainfall or the number of days on which snowfall exceeds a defined level.


All contracts have a defined start date and end date that constrain the period over which the underlying index is calculated. The most common terms in the market are November 1 through March 31 for winter season contracts and May 1 through September 30 for summer contracts, however there have been an increasing volume of trading in one month and one week contracts as the market has grown. Some contracts also specify variable index calculation procedures within the overall term – such as exclusion of weekends or double weighting on specific days – to address individual end-user business exposures.


Weather derivatives are based on standard derivative structures such as puts, calls, swaps, collars, straddles, and strangles. Key attributes of these structures are the strike (the value of the underlying index at which the contract starts to pay out), the tick size (the payout amount per unit increment in the index beyond the strike), and the limit (the maximum financial payout of the contract).


The buyer of a weather option pays a premium to the seller that is typically between 10 and 20% of the notional amount of the contract, however this can vary significantly depending on the risk profile of the contract. There is typically no upfront premium associated with swaps.

Early Pioneers of Energy Derivatives

Enron Corp along with few other companies were the first to conceive and execute weather derivatives transactions in 1997.The first transactions in energy derivatives were organized as privately negotiated over the counter deals aimed as a protection against unusual weather . Those engaged in the process sought to use such opportunity to hedge against unusual weather exposure to their core energy assets and operations.

The collapse of Enron, the biggest name in energy arena created much panic and uncertainty regarding energy trades particularly trades involving Enron itself. About 36 of the Enron’s trading desks of the 48 existing at the time had been short down following Enron’s’ problems.

However the weather derivatives markets took off from the collapse of Enron, Linda Clemons, President of Element Re, the Connecticut based weather trading arm of Reinsurance firm XL Capital said there are now about 30 companies looking at weather derivatives prices in the U.S alone on a daily basis.

According to data from the U.S Department of Commerce more than $1 trillion of the U.S economic aspects are directly exposed to weather. A. New York Times article of June 27, 1999 shows that American companies with significant exposure to weather related risk earn about $1 trillion in annual revenues. Today more actors and participants have joined the energy derivatives sector, which has also attracted actors from other groups including Insurance and Reinsurance industry, Banks, and Hedge fund industry participants.

Energy and weather transactions can be structured to cover other types of variables including temperature, rainfall, snow, wind speed, humidity and others. Payouts for risk range from a few thousand dollars to tens of millions.

Global Implications

The weather derivatives market has grown internationally. Weather transactions have been completed in Countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Australia France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Mexico and Japan. Exchange traded contracts in weather derivatives markets are currently listed on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange {CME}, the Inter Continental Exchange {ICE} the London International Financial Future and Options Exchange {LIFFE}, and may soon become available in Japan as well. According to weather Risk Management Association data from survey conducted between April 1 2001 and March 31, 2002, there were more than 3,900 weather derivatives transactions representing a growth rate of 43 percent over the previous year. Such transaction added up to a total of about $4.3 billion in exposure.

All weather derivative contracts generally define the measure of weather which relates to when and how payouts may occur. Weather heating degrees {HDG’s} and Cooling Degree Days {CDG’s} are the most common indexes used in weather derivatives markets. Today growing numbers of hedge fund operators are becoming active in the energy trading markets and analysts believe that the energy derivative markets will continue to grow over the years.


Another type of derivative based on weather-related phenomena those that derive their values from temperature conditions in different cities. While it is easy to understand the link between temperature and returns in the agriculture, utilities, and tourism industries, the CME Group estimates that a whopping thirty percent of economic activity is related to weather and temperature. Launched in 1999, temperature represents the first weather-related derivative group offered by the CME Group.

Much like how damage from hurricanes can cause financial setbacks to businesses, the possibility of abnormally high or low temperatures represents risk for businesses whose revenue predictions are tied to expected weather conditions. For example, a farmer can hedge against the risk that the temperature will not be suited for his crops by investing in a position that will pay out if his needed temperature does not happen and his crops fail. That way, even if he does not make profit from his crops, he will make profit from his contracts.

These derivatives are offered on the temperatures in 46 major worldwide cities, of which 24 are in the U.S. They are categorized on a weekly, monthly, or seasonal basis. Using 65oF as a base level, days in the ‘summer season’ occur when the average daily temperature is above 65F, while days in the ‘winter season’ occur when the average daily temperature is below 65F. Used in the summer, the value of the so-called Cooling Degree Day is indexed as the distance between the average temperature of the day and the 65F base level. Inversely, the Heating Degree Day is used in the winter and calculated in the same way as the CDD. Thus, for temperature futures, your contract will pay out if either the cumulative value of the HDD or the CDD (depending on the season) surpasses the strike level, or the number of degree days, depending on your contract. Your payout would then be the sum of all CDD/HDD values multiplied by $20. Options on the HDD and CDD are also tradable.

weather derivatives

In what way is a weather derivative useful?

Weather derivatives serve as a tool for hedging the economic loss arising from variations in weather conditions.

These derivatives focus on day-to-day variations in weather conditions and not on one-off disasters such as hurricanes or cyclones that are taken care of by insurance.

Day-to-day variations happen frequently and have a more subtle effect on the profitability of many businesses. For instance, a rise or fall in temperature may have an effect on the sale of ice creams. Similarly, the amount of rainfall decides the fate of our crops and wind speed may affect the viability of a wind power project.

Weather derivatives bring together those who want to hedge their risk and those who want to assume the risk. It makes trading of weather risk possible in the form of a financial instrument. A party willing to protect himself from the vagaries of nature transfers his risk to someone who is willing to play the role of an adventurous risk-taker by taking a fee. In case nature remains within its expected limits, the risk-taker earns a profit; however, in case of greater fluctuations, the risk-taker has to take a loss.

The remarkable thing is that the profit or loss arising out of a weather derivative is not correlated at all with the trends in the financial market. Stock or bond markets may rise or fall together.

But a rise or fall in the city temperature has nothing to do with the rise or fall in the stock market indices. A weather derivative remains unaffected by the general mood of the financial market. Investments that aren’t correlated have their own charm for some investors.

Cost of a Weather Derivative

Weather traders price transactions on the basis of reliable, historical weather data, taking into account recent trends and volatility. They then derive a statistical price based upon these parameters. The buyer of the protection, on the other hand, usually compares the expense of buying a weather option with the risk of letting the weather affect its revenues, profits and in the end, possibly its share price.

Weather derivatives usually cover one or two successive seasons. Prices will depend on the volatility of, and underlying trends in the weather and the riskiness of the product. A number of energy groups, insurance companies and banks are capable of designing, securitising and trading weather products. Transparency is growing while liquidity in core weather products (especially linked to temperature) is growing.

Most transactions have a maximum payout of between US$1 million and US$20 million; but the market is growing rapidly and larger transactions are appearing. The majority of deals are concluded ahead of the season to be covered. The negotiation process between the risk takers and the buyer of protection can take from two hours to two months.

Weather agency Skymet plans to launch derivative indices. May 6 2012

Private sector weather forecaster Skymet Weather Services plans to launch weather derivative indices on commodity exchanges like the MCX and NCDEX as and when approvals are received, a top company official said.

“Our chief scientific officer Samal Basant is heading the modelling part of the weather derivatives index products. He has worked with the IITM as well as C-DAC earlier,” Skymet chief of instrumentation Yogesh Patil said on the sidelines of an event organised by the company here over the weekend.

Incidentally, in 2011, Omnivore Capital, whose anchor investor is Godrej Agrovet, had picked up 33% interest in the private sector weather forecaster Skymet for a consideration of Rs 4.5 crore.

The rest of Skymet is owned by a former Aaj Tak journalist Jatin Singh, who is also its founder along with his father B K Singh, who was a vendor-contractor to the Pune-based Indian Meteorological Department.

The India Today Group news channel Aaj Tak also happens to be one of the clients of Skymet along with other leading media houses like Reuters Market Light, Times Now, Dainik Jagran, Telegraph, Mint, Hindustan Times, Sakshi TV, Zee News and Zee TV.

Skyment has four statisticians and two weather forecasting modellers who are part of its weather derivatives Indices design team, based in its Noida office, where it has its computing facilities, he said.

“Our eventual goal is to tie up with an institution like Goldman Sachs to launch weather forecasting derivatives. Otherwise it will not take off. The domestic commodity exchanges like MCX and NCDEX have also evinced interest,” Patil said.

He further said the company will be applying for permission to all commodity exchanges, including companies like Indian Energy Exchange and PTC India. Work on these products should be over by next year.

The development comes despite the fact the Forward Contract (Regulation) Act Amendment Bill, which will enable introduction new products like weather derivatives, has been stuck in Parliament for the past 13 years.

This February, Assocham president RN Dhoot had written to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh pointing out that the implementation of the Forward Contracts (Regulation) Amendment (FCRA) Bill 2010 would strengthen commodity market regulator.

“The new FCRA Bill will enable the regulator to coordinate globally under mandate of G-20 and will also enable the market to introduce new and innovative hedging products like options and weather derivatives which can be tailored to the risk appetite of farmers to hedge risks,” Dhoot said in his letter to the Prime Minister.

However, on May 1 this year, Union Food & Consumer Affairs minister K V Thomas had said the proposed amendment Bill was unlikely to be passed in the current Parliament session.

The company also provides data to power companies like Reliance Energy, CESC Kolkata, Torrent Power and North Delhi Power.

“We provide weather forecast for the next 48 hrs to Reliance Energy. This enables them to predict demand for electricity at particular times. For example, when the temperature reaches a certain point, using past data, they can predict what will be the power consumption in the city at that temperature. This also enables them to do energy hedging,” the official said.

Futures and Options

There is a substantial risk of loss in trading commodity futures, options and off exchange forex.

#Bitcoin #cyrptocurrency $BTC #DCBlockchain #gold $fb $VZ 3Q results 24option review 76ers 420 Real Estate LLC @OCMillionaire AA AAPL ABA ABNB ABS academics account deficits accounting Accredited Investors acquisition ACRA ACT Actavis Inc activist short selling ADA Adam Aron ADM ADP employment report Adrian Orr adventure advertise with us AI AIDA AIG Airbnb Airbnb Stock Price Target AKAM Algorand Alphabet alumni Amazon Amazon forecasts Amazon price target AMC AML AMTD AMTD Strengths AMTD SWOT AMTD Weakness AMU AMZN analysis Analysis and outlook Analytics Anatoly Yakovenko Andrew L. Fassari Andrew Left Andy Jassy antifraud APIX platform APL app APPLE Apple Earnings APRA Arbitrage Arcane Crypto ARCS ARK Innovation ARKK Arthur Dembro Article artificial intelligence artificial prices Artmarket Asian trading ASIC Ask price Asset Management Derivatives Forum Asset swap ASX Asymmetric volatility AT&T At-the-Money Atlas At risk AUD AUDUSD AUDUSD Technical Analysis aussie Australia Australia Google Australian currency australian dollar Author Autograph B.1.1.529 B2B banking platform baby rhino BaFin BAH Bakkt bank bank credit Bankers Bankhaus von der Heydt bankia banking Banking Code banking platform Bank Negara Bank of Canada Bank of England Bank of Greece Bank of Japan Bank of Lithuania Bank of Russia bank panic Bank Rate Bank run banks banner ads Banque de France Barrier options basis BBRY BCRA BCSC bearish bear market Bear Spread bear trend Benjamin Reynolds Berkshire Hathaway Beta bid and ask Big Data Big Data Analytics BINANCE Binance Markets binary binary brokers Binary Option Binary Option brokers Binary Options binary options fraud binary trading bind Bind Therapeutics BIND BIS Bitbond bitcoin Bitcoin Cash Bitcoin ETF Bitcoin ETN Futures Bitcoin futures bitcoin news Bitcoin payments bitcoin price Bitcoin Rebounds bitcoins Bitcoin technical analysis Bitcoin Trading Bitcoin Trust bitcoin wallets Bitcoin Zero bitcon Bitex Bitfitnex BitLicense BITRIA Bitwage BKSY Black-Scholes option-pricing model BlackBerry BlackSky Blake Paulson blockchain blockchain platforms Blockchain Summit blockchain technology Blockpass Blockrize blog blog. world Blue Bit Analytics Blue Bit Banc BNGI BnkToTheFuture BNY Mellon BOJ Bombs Bond bonds Bonus bonuses Boohoo boohoo.com Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corporation border payments Bordier & Cie borrowings boston dynamics Boston Dynamics extreme robots BOX Exchange Brainard Brave breach BREAKING NEWS Breaking Stock News Breaking World news Breezecoin Breeze de Mar brend brexit BRK BRKA broker Brokerage broker quotes brokers Brooklyn Nets BRXCapital BSTX BTC BTCC.B BTCC.U BTCE BTCUSD bullion bullish Bull market Bull Spread business Business Analytics business funding Buy buy-side buyer or seller Buy limit order CA CAC 40 index CAD CAKE call options cannabis Cannabis Act cannabis industry capital-raising capital management carbon Cardano Cardano Foundation CARES Act Carry Trade cash cash flow cash rate Casper Tribler CAT CA Technologies CBDC CBDCs CBDC tokens CBOE CBRT CDS central bank digital currency Central Banker central bankers central bank money central banks cents per share CEPR CFD CFDs CFR CFTC Chamber of Digital Commerce Charles Schwab Cheesecake Factory cherry-picking Chilean demonstrators china Chinese stock market Christian Larsen Christopher J. Waller CIOs Cipolla Citron Clarida Clean Energy Fuels clearing climate risk climate tech clinton Cloud computing cloud services cmc markets CME CME Group CNO CNO Financial Group CNS cognitive technologies COIN Coinbase coins college commodities commodity commodity benchmarks commodity derivatives Commodity futures Commodity Futures Trading Commission commodity pool companies Companies Act company secretary Compliance Condor condor strategy conduct Consumer Duty contagion risk contracts contrarian indicator Copper Copper forecast Copper price CORIE coronavirus COST Cost of carry Counterparty Risk Country risk Coupon rate Covariance Coverage ratios covered calls covid COVID-19 Cowen CPI CPMI crash credit Credit Default Swap credit rating credit risk credit risks Credit Suisse Credit watch Creta Crete crisi crisis CROs cross rates crowdfunding crowdfunding press release Crowd Investing crude crude oil crypto crypto-assets crypto-community crypto-exchanges crypto-token crypto-trading platform Crypto.com cryptoasset cryptoassets crypto assets cryptocurrencies Cryptocurrency cryptocurrency derivatives cryptocurrency exchange Cryptocurrency exchanges Cryptocurrency Fund Cryptocurrency Platform cryptocurrency trading Cryptocurrency Trading Platform crypto derivatives cryptoeconomy Crypto ETP CryptoFed crypto markets crypto news crypto platform crypto projects Crypto Pyramid crypto rewards cryptos crypto wallet Crédit Agricole CSA CTF culture currencies currency Currency.com currency exchange currency fluctuations currency market currency options Currency Pairs Currenex custody CVC cyber-attacks cyber-risks cyber criminals cyber maturity cyber risks cyber security cybersecurity Cybersecurity Risks daily daily analysis daily chart daily report Daily Technical Analysis Dalberry dark web Data Analytics data infrastructures data mining data sharing David Gentile Davos DAX Dax30 Dax30 Technical Analysis DAX Technical Analysis Day Traders DBS Debenhams Debentures debt debt crisis debt free debt markets Decentralized decentralized digital environment decentralized Web decision-makers DeFi DELL demo account demo platform Denis Beau deposit derivative derivative contracts Derivative instruments derivative products derivatives Derivatives Forum derivatives industry Derivatives Market Deutsche Bank Deutsche Bundesbank deVere DGCX Digi-Mobile digital asset digital asset management digital assets digital bank Digital Banking digital banks digital collectibles digital currencies Digital Currency digital economy digital euro Digital Exchange digital finance digital innovation Digitalisation digitalization Digital Leadership digital money digital options digital payments Digital Portfolios digital tokens Digital Transformation digital wallet DIS Disclosure Technology DISNEY disruption DIS SWOT analysis distributed ledger DIY Investor DKNG DLT Dock Systems Inc dollar Domain Dougherty dow jones Dow Jones Index downgrades downtrend DPI DPL DraftKings Draghi Drawdowns drone dual-currency bonds Dubai Gold Ducat Dukascopy Duration dWeb e-banking software program e-commerce e-commerce security e-KYC e-payment EA early payment Earlytrade earnings earnings guidance Earn money from each visitor to your shortened links ECB ECB president Draghi Economic & Forex Data Economic Calendar economic issues Economic policy economics economies economists economy Eddie Yue EGAN electronic money Electronic Trading Elon Musk Elvira Nabiullina EMA EMA50 Embedded option emerging markets emerging risks EMI EMIR Energy Enforcement Enterprise Management Incentive EOS equity options Equity Swap ESMA ESPN estate and trust lawyers estate planning services whittier estate planning whittier ETF ETFs ETH Eth2 ether Ethereum Ethereum Hackathon EthereumMax Ether futures ETHGlobal ETHSingapore ETHUSD eToro ETP ETPs EU eu crisis EUR EUR/JPY eur/usd EUR/USD buy signal EUR/USD trading EURB Eurex Euribor Euribor swaps euro euro area eurobank Eurodollar Euro Interbank Offered Rate europan union European economy EuropeFX Euros Eurosystem eurozone EURUSD Technical Analysis Evergrande Evo Binary excessive trading exchange Exchange Regulation ex dividend Execution algorithms Exercise price Exotic Derivatives extra spending money EY facebook Facebook Stock Facebook Stock Price Target factory orders FB FCA FCM FCPA FCS FDF FEAT Fed Federal Reserve Federal Reserve System FIA fianacial news Fidelity Digital Assets finanacial dictionary financial financial analysis financial crime financial crisis Financial Distress Financial Glossary financial institutions financial instrument financial news financial product financial regulator financial services financial statements financial technology financial terms Finanstilsynet FinCEN Fine Art FineEvent FinEvents FINRA finreg FinSafe FinTech FinTech EXPO fintech industry Fintech Week Finteractive First 5G Smartphone fiscal policy Fitch fixed income Flex Option Flow Traders FMA FOMC FOMC statement forecast forecasts foreign currencies Foreign exchange Foreign exchange dealer Foreign Exchange Market Foreign exchange swap Forensic accounting Forest Laboratories forex forex ads forex analysis forex articles Forex Bonuses Glossary forex brokers forex calendar Forex Daily Forex Daily Report Forex Daily Technical Analysis forex fraud forex ideas forex indicator Forex market forex market code Forex market manipulation Forex News Forex Offers forex poll FOREX PORTFOLIO Forex portfolio performance forex pros forex scams forex signal Forex Signal Provider Forex Signals forex strategy forex technical analysis Forex Technical Outlook forex tips forex trader forex traders forex trading forex trading signal Forex Trading Tips Form S-1 Forsage forward contract Forward interest rate france fraud Fraud Broker fraud prevention fraudulent FRTB FSB FSCA FTSE FTX FTX Trading FUBO fuboTV Fundamental analysis fund managers fundraising FutureFi futures futures and options Futures Contract futures contracts Futures Hall of Fame Futures Industry Futures Team Portfolio performance futures traders Futures Trading fx fx advertising fx analysis FX broker fx brokers FXCM FX Daily FX Global Code FX market FX Options fx signals FX signals systems FXVC Gaddafi galaxy GameStop Gamma Gary Gensler Gazprom futures GBP GBP/USD GBP/USD support resistance GBPUSD Technical Analysis GDAX gdp Gelsinger Gemini Gemini Credit Card geopolitics German Elections 2013 GFLC GFXC Gibraltar Financial Services Commission Gilts GLD global currency trading Global Economic Outlook Global Financial Leadership Conference Globalisation globalization GLOPTION GLOPTION REVIEW Glossary GME gold gold analysis Golden parachute gold forecast Goldman Sachs Gold Market Report gold outlook gold price gold prices gold price today Gold standard gold technical analysis Gold today GOOG GOOGL google Gores Holdings Gouves Gouves Creta Gouves guide governance Governor Kuroda GPB Capital greece greece crisis Greek bonds greek crisis greek debt Greek Economy green bond green finance Greenshoe option Gross national product growth grrece GS Hackathon Hackcelerator Hamster Option Handle Head & shoulders headcount Hedge Hedge fund hedge funds Hedging high-level principles high-risk high yield stocks historical transitions HKMA HLF HMRC HOOD How to Draw Trend Lines HTML humanity at crossroads Hybrid security IBM IBM SWOT analysis Ice ICE Data PRD ICO ICOS IDR IFRS 9 IIA IIROC IMF Implied volatility in-state tuition In-the-money income Inc SWOT Analysis index Index Options indicator indicators indices industrial revolutions Industries inflation information Information Society Infoseed Initial Coin Offering Initial public offering Initial public offering (IPO) innovations insider tips Insider trading Institutional Investors instructor INTC intc SWOT intel INTEL beats on earnings and revenue Intel price target Interactive Brokers Intercontinental Exchange interest interest rate Interest rate risk INTEREST RATES interest rate swap Intermarket spread swaps International Business Machines International Monetary Fund Internet of Things intraday Intrinsic value of an option invest investing investment Investment bank investment climate investments investor Investor relations investors IOSCO IOTA IOTA token IPFS iphone IPO IPOs ISDA Islamic finance italy IT security IZNES Janet L. Yellen January Effect japan Jay Clayton Jefferies Jeffry Schneider Jensen index Jens Weidmann JForex JNJ John Hull journalist JPM JPMorgan JPY Junk bond Kamikaze Defense Kappa Kevin Hassett KeyBanc Capital Kim Kardashian Kingsway Capital Knockin Option Knockout Option Koji Kraken labor market leads Ledn Les Male leverage LIBOR Libor scandal Libra LIFFE LimeWire LinksManagement Liquidity liquidity ratios Litecoin LIVE LLC LMAX loan repayments loans Locke London Bullion Market Association London stocks Long straddle Lookback Option LTDA Luis de Guindos LYFT m-CBDC MA MACD Machine Learning macro mainnet majors Make Money Make Money On Twitter Make Money with Affiliate Marketing Make Money with Your Own Website manipulation margin Mariupol market marketing market news Market order Market Report market risk MARKETS Markets Live Stream Markowitz efficient frontier Marquee Sports MAS Mastercard medicine memecoins Mercury Crypto Invest metaverse Michelle W. Bowman Micro Bitcoin Micro Bitcoin futures Micro Ether futures Microsoft MicroStrategy Microtransactions Micro WTI futures MiFID II MiFIR miners MIOTA mobile Mobile Populism model risk MOEX momentum monetary Monetary Authority of Singapore monetary policy Monetize your site money money laundering Money Laundering Regulations Money Management money managers Money market Monte Carlo Simulation Moody's Morningstar Moscow Exchange Moscow Exchange’s Derivatives Market Moss Moving Average Moving Averages MPR MSCI Ms Ho Hern Shin MSTR multiculturalism Munger Municipal bond Municipal Securities Murban Crude Oil Future Muslims Naive diversification Nasdaq National Westminster Bank Natural Gas NatWest NBA NBLP NCSC net earnings Netflix neuroscience Neutral news new stocks new technologies New York State Department of Financial Services New York’s financial regulator New Zealand NFLX NFT NFTs NFTSTAR NFT Storefront Nice Nigel Green Nikkei no deposit bonus Nominal non-farm NORC Nordic Growth Market Norges Bank Normal backwardation theory Northern Trust Norwegian economy Nouriel Roubini Nov. 12-14 Nu Variant NYDFS NYSE NZD OCC OCR OFAC Offering oil Oil futures Oil price oil prices Omnibus account One River Digital Asset Management Onfido online payment Online payments online security online trading Online Transactions OPEC open interest OpenSea operational risk Opportunity Option premium options options and futures Options contract options exchanges options strategy options trading Option Strategy Oracle ORCL Oregon Lottery Osprey Solana Fund Osprey Technology Acquisition otc OTC derivatives out-of-the-money Outlook Outperform Over-the-counter market (OTC) oversold oversold signals Overweight oz p2p pair Pakistani Panetta PAREXEL International Corporation parity pay cheque payment plan Payments payment services payment system Payward peer-to-peer Peloton pension funds People's Bank of China People’s Bank of China Petroleum PFMI phases Philip Lowe PHP pips plain vanilla options Plane crashes PlayDapp police guard was caught slapping policy settings Polkadot POLL Poloniex Polygon Ponzi pooled futures Porsche Crashes portfolio portfolio management Portfolio Manager Portfolio performance Post post-trading analytics postbank pound precious metal precious metals premium presidential election POLL Press Release price Price/earnings ratio Price/sales ratio price target Price Targets private lender Products Project Oblio Protocol Labs PRXL PTON public ledger PUFF Pure Digital platform Puremarkets Put Put option Put – Call Ratio PVH PWG Pyramid scheme Q Q3 QCOM QE Qualcomm quantum computer quarterly review Quick ratio RACIB Random walk ransomware Rating Rating Outlook Raymond James RBA RBNZ Real time rebound reciprocity exchange recovery and resolution REGI registered retirement savings plan regtech regulation Regulation FD regulator regulators regulatory Regulatory Agencies regulatory authorities regulatory risks Relative strength Relative Strength Indicator repo rate report reputational risk Research Reserve Bank of New Zealand reserves Resistance retail clients retail financial markets retail investors Retail Sales retirement retirement fund Retirement Income revenue revenues Reverse repo review RGLD Riksbank Ripple risk Risk & Currency Risk-free risk-management risk management RiskMinds Risk premium risk profile RISKS risk software RIVR Robinhood robot robotics Robots Roku Rollover RRSP RSI Rules For Investing Russian war helicopter samsung Satoshi savings Sberbank futures Scalper scholarships Scoreboard SEBA Bank SEBA Earn SEC secure web page Securities and Exchange Commission securities fraud securities offering security services SEK self-driving sell Selling Covered Calls Series A Settlement SFTR SGX shareholders shares Sheldon Mills Shitcoins short position short selling Should Greece Leave the Eurozone? Poll SIFMA signal providers Signorini Simulation Conference Singapore Singapore futures and options Sinic Slack Slack Price Target slippage SNE social market economy Social Security Benefits Social Security payments social traders social trading Socios.com SOL Solidity Sotheby's SPAC spain SpectraScience speculators SPLS Sponsoredtweets spoofing Spot spot Bitcoin ETF SPX Sri Lankan churches STABLE Act stablecoin Stablecoins Staff Memo Stefan He Qin Stefan Ingves Stefan Qin Stellar Stephen Buyer Stephen Curry steve jobs Steve Jobs quotes STI Stifel Stifel Nicolaus stochastic stock stock analysis Stock dividends stock market stock market investing Stock Market News stock markets stock news stock options Stock Price Target stocks stocks index Stock Tweets stock upgrades Stock upgrades and downgrades Stoned Ape stop loss strange strategy Strength stress testing strike price Strother STX SUEX Sup supply support Support and Resistance Lines suspended trading Swap swaps Swap spread Sweden Swedish financial Swedish financial system Swedish krona SWESTR Swiss economy Swiss Forex Switzerland SWOT SWOT ANALYSIS SWY Sygnum Systemic risk systemic sales TAB Networks Tag Tags Tailed calendar spread TAIWAN take profit Taking Paid Online Surveys TALF Tangle technology tarding signal tax benefit TCResearch Technical Analysis Technical Analysis for EURUSD Technical Analysis Gold Technical indicators technical levels technical picture technology Telegram terms of service & Disclaimer terror Terrorist terrorist attack Tesla Tesla earnings Tesla Motors Tesla Stock Price Target Tesla Targets Tether Tether Stablecoin texas girls text links Tezos The9 The Cybersecurity Leadership Things to do in Gouves Creta Threat TMX token tokenization Tom Brady Torex Gold tornado Total Return Option Touted Toyota TP ICAP TPR trade TradeFred trader traders trading Trading Activity Trading binary options Trading Desk News trading e-books trading forex signals trading platform trading positions trading products trading scam trading session trading signal TRADING SIGNALS trading strategies trading strategy trading system trading tips transaction fees Transatlantic Real Estate LLC traveling Trend Trend is your friend trend reversal Trend Trading Tron True Leaf Brands trump TRX TRY TSLA TSX Turkey's central bank tweets Twilio Twitter TWLO TWTR tZERO U.S. economy U.S. securities laws UFC UK Ukraine Ukraine hits Euro UKX UnaVista Unbanked Unemployment unemployment rate UNICEF Cryptocurrency Fund Union Standard United Wholesale Mortgage unregulated securities Up-and-in Option Up-and-out Option upgrades upgrades and downgrades USD USD/JPY USD/JPY trading signal USDCAD USDollar US dollar us elections UWM UWMC Valour valuation VanEck Vanna variant Vazquez Cao VCDM Veritas Verizon video view Virgil Virgil Capital Virgil Sigma Fund Virgin Galactic virtual assets Virtual Bank virtual currency VIX Volatility Volatility convexity volume voting reform VPC VQR Vulnerable option W3C wall street Walt Lukken Warrant Warren Buffett Wash Trading Weakness Weather derivatives WebiD weekly Weekly Economic Calendar weird Western Undergraduate Exchange Westpac WFE what is a dividend Whistleblower whistleblowers whitepaper Who do you think will win the presidential election this November? Wim Grommen Winklevoss wirecard withdrawal Worden Capital Management WordPress Work working risks World World Economic Forum World Federation of Exchanges WorldWideMarkets Woven Planet wti WTI Crude Oil Price Forecasts WUE XAU XAUUSD XBTF Xerxes XRP yahoo Yankee market Yannis Stournaras yen YHOO Yield Burning YouTube YUM Z-Bond Zapad 2017 ZEPO Zero Coupon Bond Zeta ZM Zodia Custody Zoom Zoom stock predictions